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    【行业新闻】仪器仪表与遥感卫星组“CP” 多个领域大显身手
    信息来源: 华恒 | [ 2019-05-23] 点击量: 236

       近几来,全球遥感卫星发射的次数在不断的增加。根据统计,2018年我国发射的遥感卫星已经达到了40颗,远超过2017年发射的19颗。而卫星上携带的多种仪器仪表载荷成为了卫星的“眼镜”和“耳朵”,延伸了卫星的功能,在多个领域发挥着重要的作用。

      In recent years,the number of global remote sensing satellite launches has been increasing.According to statistics,China has launched 40 remote sensing satellites in 2018,far more than 19 in 2017.The loads of various instruments and instruments carried on the satellite have become the"eyeglasses"and"ears"of the satellite,extending the functions of the satellite and playing an important role in many fields.
     
      卫星遥感是在远离目标和非接触目标物体条件下探测目标地物,获取其反射、辐射或散射的电磁波信息,并进行提取、判定、加工处理、分析与应用的一门科学和技术,涉及到了观测仪、光谱仪以及成像仪等多种仪器仪表。
      Satellite remote sensing is a science and technology that detects the target and ground objects far away from the target and non-contact objects,obtains the electromagnetic wave information reflected,radiated or scattered by them,and extracts,judges,processes,analyses and applies it.It involves many instruments such as observer,spectrometer and imager.
     
      10bet体育,国内已经形成了气象、海洋、高分、资源、环境等对地遥感观测卫星系列,在土地资源调查、生态环境监测、农业监测与作物估产、灾害预报与灾情评估、海洋环境调查等方面发挥着重要的作用。
      At present,China has formed a series of remote sensing observation satellites for meteorology,ocean,high score,resources and environment,which play an important role in land resources investigation,ecological environment monitoring,agricultural monitoring and crop yield estimation,disaster prediction and disaster assessment,marine environment investigation and so on.
     
      其中,我国发射的用于环境减灾两颗卫星通过携带的光学和红外传感器,迅速准确的拍摄到澳大利亚火场的光学、红外和雷达图像,极大的帮助了澳大利亚的灭火行动;发射的用于监测大气污染状况的高分五号搭载了大气主要温室气体监测仪、大气痕量气体差分吸收光谱仪、大气气溶胶多角度偏振探测仪、大气环境红外甚高光谱分辨率探测仪,从不同方面实现对大气主要污染气体、温室气体、云和气溶胶等的综合探测。
      Among them,the two satellites launched by China for environmental disaster mitigation can quickly and accurately capture the optical,infrared and radar images of the Australian fire field by carrying optical and infrared sensors,which greatly helps Australia's fire extinguishing operations;the high-score No.5 launched for monitoring air pollution is equipped with the main greenhouse gas monitor and differential absorption of atmospheric trace gases.Spectrometer,atmospheric aerosol Multi-angle Polarization detector,atmospheric environment infrared very high spectral resolution detector,from different aspects to achieve a comprehensive detection of major atmospheric pollutants,greenhouse gases,clouds and aerosols.
     
      在海洋观测领域,我国发射的海洋一号C星携带了海洋水色水温扫描仪、紫外成像仪、海岸带成像仪、星上定标光谱仪和船舶自动识别监测系统五种仪器,海洋二号B卫星携带了雷达高度计、微波散射计、扫描微波辐射计、校正辐射计、数据收集系统和船舶自动识别系统6个有效载荷,来推动海洋环境的监测。
      In the field of ocean observation,Ocean-1C satellite launched by our country carries five instruments:ocean color water temperature scanner,ultraviolet imager,coastal zone imager,on-board calibration spectrometer and ship automatic identification monitoring system.Ocean-2B satellite carries radar altimeter,microwave scatterometer,scanning microwave radiometer,calibration radiometer,data collection system and ship automatic identification system.The system has six payloads to promote the monitoring of the marine environment.
     
      在地震机理研究、空间环境监测和地球系统科学研究等领域,我国发射了“张衡一号”卫星,搭载的载荷主要有电磁场有效载荷、电离层原位参数测量有效载荷、电离层结构层析成像载荷等3大类共8种仪器仪表,共同对空间环境进行监测。
      In the fields of earthquake mechanism research,space environment monitoring and earth system science research,China has launched Zhangheng-1 satellite.The main loads carried by Zhangheng-1 satellite are electromagnetic field payload,ionospheric in-situ parameter measurement payload,ionospheric structure tomography imaging payload and other three categories of 8 instruments,which jointly monitor the space environment.
     
      虽然10bet体育,世界各地已经发射了多颗卫星,但是卫星发射还远远没有进入到快速发展的阶段。2015年我国的“吉林一号”项目中,计划于2030年完成138颗卫星组网。2019年5月,SpaceX“星链计划”(Satrlink)正式启动,“星链计划”由近1.2万颗卫星组成,按照约定,SpaceX需在2024年之前成功发射6000颗卫星。未来,卫星的数量还会不断增加。无论对国防安全还是经济社会发展,卫星遥感的作用都不可小觑。
      Although many satellites have been launched around the world,satellite launches have not yet entered the stage of rapid development.In 2015,138 satellite networks are planned to be completed in 2030 in China's"Jilin 1"project.In May 2019,SpaceX Star Chain Program(Satrlink)was officially launched.The Star Chain Program consists of nearly 12,000 satellites.According to the agreement,SpaceX needs to successfully launch 6,000 satellites by 2024.In the future,the number of satellites will continue to increase.Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in national security and economic and social development.
     
      同时,采用快速、准确的实时观测技术,获得大范围、长时间序列的数据始终是卫星发射的目标,而观测技术的进步就取决于卫星上携带的仪器仪表。在卫星的不断发射过程中,也在推动着仪器仪表技术的不断升级。从被动的接受地物发射的自然光发展到接受地物发射的长波红外辐射,并能利用合成孔径雷达和激光雷达主动发射电磁波,实现全天候的对地观测,仪器仪表的功能在不断提升。此外,在性能上,仪器仪表也在不断的提高。相比海洋一号A星、B星来说,海洋一号C星海岸带成像仪的幅宽提升近2倍,分辨率提高了5倍,在轨寿命也从3年延长到5年,同时重量、体积、功耗等指标也得到了进一步优化。
      At the same time,using fast and accurate real-time observation technology to obtain large-scale and long time series data is always the target of satellite launching,and the progress of observation technology depends on the instruments carried on the satellite.In the process of satellite launching,it also promotes the upgrading of instrumentation technology.From passive acceptance of natural light emitted by ground objects to acceptance of long-wave infrared radiation emitted by ground objects,and active emission of electromagnetic waves by synthetic aperture radar and lidar,all-weather earth observation is realized,and the functions of instruments and instruments are constantly improving.In addition,in terms of performance,instrumentation is also constantly improving.Compared with Ocean 1 A and B satellites,the width and resolution of Ocean 1 C coastal zone imager have been increased by nearly two times,and the on-orbit life has been extended from three to five years.At the same time,the weight,volume and power consumption have been further optimized.
     
      随着我国经济的不断发展,城市化进程的不断加快,城市规划建设、旅游服务、城市公共安全等的发展,遥感技术的应用领域还将继续扩大。对于仪器仪表来说,也将与遥感卫星一起,发挥着更大的作用。
      With the continuous development of China's economy,the acceleration of urbanization,the development of urban planning and construction,tourism services and urban public safety,the application of remote sensing technology will continue to expand.For instruments and instruments,they will play a greater role together with remote sensing satellites.